Getting to Know the History of Islamic Civilization and the History of Islam’s Entry into Indonesia

As it is known that Islamic civilization has such a long history of development. Quoting from various reliable sources, the history of Islamic civilization is divided into three periods. The three periods include the classical period, the middle period and the modern period. For more details, see the following review!

History of Islamic Civilization

The history of Islamic civilization is divided into 3 periods, the following is a complete explanation of each period in the history of Islamic civilization:

  • Classical Period (650-1258 AD)

The classical period was the golden age, progress and glory of Islam. This period itself is best to be 2 phases, namely expansion and disintegration.

  • Expansion, Integration and Progress Phases

This era took place in 650-1000 AD where the area of spread of Islam expanded from North Africa to western Spain. The spread of Islam also occurred from Persia to India.

In this era, the development of science, language, religion and others also reached its peak. In this classical period many great scholars produced such as Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Ibn Hambali and Imam Shafi’i.

  • Disintegration Phase

This period occurred in the period 1000-1250 AD with conditions beginning to decline. The Caliph’s power was overthrown until finally Baghdad was seized and then destroyed by Hulagu Khan around 1258 AD.

  • Middle Period

Just like the classical period, this middle period is also divided into two phases, namely:

  • Phase of Deterioration

The phase of decline occurred in the years 1250-1500 AD with decentralization and disintegration increasing in society. The differences between Sunnis and Shi’a, Arabs and Persians are increasingly evident.

Islam is divided into Arab and Persian where the Arab part consists of Arabia, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt, Suria and North Africa centered in Egypt. While the Persian part consists of Asia Minor, Central Asia, the Balkans and Persia centered on Iran.

  • Phase 3 of the Great Kingdom

This phase occurred around 1500-1700 AD which was resumed in the setback phase in 1700-1800 AD. These phases of the three great empires included the Safavids in Persia, the Ottomans in Turkey and the Mughals in India.

The glory of Islam in the period of the three kingdoms can still be seen today. Many relics can be seen in the form of architecture in Iran, Delhi and Istanbul.

  • Period Modern

This period dates back to 1800 AD to the present. Islamic leaders and leaders are thinking about how to improve the quality and strength of Muslims. In this era, muslim conditions are also inversely proportional to the classical period. Muslims who originally became the center of civilization today are amazed by the development of culture and the progress of other groups of people.

History of the Entry of Islam in Indonesia

After discussing the history of Islamic civilization, of course it will feel lacking if we do not discuss the history of Islam in Indonesia. As we know that Indonesia is one of the countries where most of the population is the largest Muslim in the whole world today.

Yes, it is currently estimated that the number of Muslims in Indonesia reaches 207 million people where most of the population adheres to Suni Islam. If around 207 million Indonesians convert to Islam, it means that 13{fc0a862e604c6e7af05f93fa90837de37de69d041a552f787ba75f2cdd4f3649} of the world’s Muslims live in our country.

However, although the majority of Indonesia’s population is Muslim, Indonesia is not an Islamic country based on Islamic laws. Indonesia is a secular democratic country but with strong Islamic influence support. For more details, see the following history of Islam in Indonesia.

History of Islam in Indonesia

Many historians suggest that Islam first entered Indonesian territory around the 17th century. One of the proofs of the entry of Islam in Indonesia is shown by a Chinese news from the Tang Dynasty era.

The story mentions that in 674 AD, precisely on the west coast of Sumatra there was a village, namely Barus / Fansur. The settlement was inhabited by arabs who embraced Islam. This is supported by information from Muslim traders from Arabia and Persia who have trade relations with the Srivijaya kingdom.

The Development of Islam in Indonesia in the Pre-Colonial Period

Although Islam entered Indonesia in the 7th century, its spread only occurred in the 12th century. Initially, Islam was introduced by Arab traders afterwards through proselytizing carried out by clerics.

Evidence that further strengthens the suspicion that Islam began to develop in Java is the discovery of a tombstone in the name of Fatimah Binti Maimun in Gresik where it was written in 1082 AD. In addition, there is also a typical Gujarat tombstone on the gravestone of Maulana Malik Ibrahim in Gresik City.

Other evidence is also found in other areas of Java where there are tombstones made during the Majapahit kingdom. Over time, Islamic politics has also begun to grow, it is recorded that this happened in the 13th century on the north coast of Sumatra.

From a Marco Polo account, it is stated that there is one Muslim city in Indonesia. It is also known that at that time there were Islamic kingdoms in Samudra Pasai and Tumasik. It controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca and had important ports for exporting pepper to Bengal and Gujarat.

The port began to bustle around the 12th century, just when Majapahit had hegemony and at a time when Islamic traders from various countries had traded in the country. Broadly speaking, the merchants and nobles of the great empire were the first to have adopted the new religion. The spread of Islam in Indonesia is also increasingly felt when a Muslim trader marries an indigenous woman.

In the 15th century, traders from Arabia, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, China and India increasingly dominated Indonesian trade under the control of Javanese Majapahit traders. Furthermore, the Ming Dynasty of China also made voyages with the aim of creating a Chinese Muslim settlement in Palembang.

Ming also actively established a Chinese-Malay Muslim community and by 1430, the Ming Dynasty had succeeded in forming Arab, Chinese and Malay Muslim communities in several regions such as Ampel, Demak, Semarang and Tuban. Through this, Islam finally began to stand in Java where its spread also could not be separated from the role of Wali Songo.

The Development of Islam during the colonial period

Around the 17th century, the Allies began to colonize Indonesia because they were interested in all natural wealth such as spices. The arrival of the Dutch to the country certainly resulted in a monopoly on the central port of trade. But on the other hand, this condition turned out to help the process of spreading Islam because Muslim traders moved to small and remote ports.

In this period, steam-powered transportation has also begun to be introduced so that it will certainly make the relationship between Indonesia and other Islamic countries easier. In Mecca, the number of pilgrims increased significantly.

In addition, the exchange of scholars and students is also increasing. There are approximately 200 Southeast Asian students, the majority of whom study in Cairo. Not only that, there are around 2 thousand Saudi Arabian people who are of Indonesian descent who also study there.

In addition, Islamic religious thoughts and movements have also begun to grow in Indonesia. One example is the “Sarekat Islam” formed by H. Samanhudi on October 16, 1905, which is an organization of masses of Islamic faith in Surakata. It served as the first nationalist organization to help fight colonialism.

Through this organization, Islam continues to be fought for to become a common identity among the very diverse ethnic and cultural compositions in Indonesia. Not only that, at this time there were also many Muslim modernist schools emerging such as Adabiah, Diniyah Putri and Sumatra Thawalib. This movement aims to remove all elements that are considered far from Islam. Some of the activities carried out are training women to become preachers to build Islamic schools.

Around 1920, children in Java began to study the Qur’an. After that, Nadlatul Ulama (NU) was also formed in 1926 by Hashim Asy’ari. And since then, various Muslim-based organizations have also begun to form such as Nahdlatul Wathan in Lombok and Perti.

The Development of Islam in Indonesia After Independence

After the proclamation of independence, Indonesia became one of the second largest Muslim countries in the world. The development of Muslims in the country has also brought Indonesia closer to the interlectual center of Islam.

Many scholars and writers have contributed to the development of Islamic interpension by exchanging knowledge together with foreigners. Well, one of the modernist writers and religious dreamers in Indonesia is Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah. He was the first to successfully interpret al-azhar in Indonesian.

Because Indonesia is one of the Islamic majorities, not a few people want Indonesia to become an Islamic state. However, because in Indonesia there is also a non-Muslim population, this has not yet materialized and until now has always been a trigger for separatism and division. And Indonesia until now still upholds the negaya ideology, namely Pancasila.

That’s a glimpse of the history of Islamic civilization and the history of the entry of Islam into Indonesia. Islam is a religion that is embraced by almost 90{fc0a862e604c6e7af05f93fa90837de37de69d041a552f787ba75f2cdd4f3649} of the Indonesian population. But nevertheless, Indonesia is one of the countries that strongly promotes tolerance because in this country there is also a non-Muslim population that we should cherish its existence.